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In philosophyskepticism can refer to: Philosophical skepticism As a philosophical school or movement, skepticism originated in ancient Greece.
A number of Greek Sophists held skeptical views. One was Pyrrhonian skepticismwhich was founded by Pyrrho of Elis c. The other was Academic skepticismso-called because its two leading defenders, Arcesilaus c.
Both schools of skepticism denied that knowledge is possible and urged suspension of judgment epoche for the sake of mental tranquility ataraxia. The major difference between the schools seems to have been that Academic skeptics claimed that some beliefs are more reasonable or probable than others, whereas Pyrrhonian skeptics argued that equally compelling arguments can be given for or against any disputed view.
Most of what we know about ancient skepticism is due to Sextus Empiricusa Pyrrhonian skeptic who lived in the second or third century A. His major work, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, contains a lucid summary of stock skeptical arguments.
There was little knowledge of, or interest in, ancient skepticism in Christian Europe during the Middle Ages. Interest revived during the Renaissance and Reformation, particularly after the complete writings of Sextus Empiricus were translated into Latin in A number of Catholic writers, including Francisco Sanches c.
Similar arguments were offered later perhaps ironically by the Protestant thinker Pierre Bayle in his influential Historical and Critical Dictionary — In his classic work, Meditations of First PhilosophyDescartes sought to refute skepticism, but only after he had formulated the case for skepticism as powerfully as possible.
Descartes argued that no matter what radical skeptical possibilities we imagine there are certain truths e. Thus, the ancient skeptics were wrong to claim that knowledge is impossible. Descartes also attempted to refute skeptical doubts about the reliability of our senses, our memory, and other cognitive faculties.
To do this, Descartes tried to prove that God exists and that God would not allow us to be systematically deceived about the nature of reality. Hume was an empiricist, claiming that all genuine ideas can be traced back to original impressions of sensation or introspective consciousness. Hume argued forcefully that on empiricist grounds there are no sound reasons for belief in God, an enduring self or soul, an external world, causal necessity, objective morality, or inductive reasoning.
We are hard-wired by nature to trust, say, our memories or inductive reasoning, and no skeptical arguments, however powerful, can dislodge those beliefs. According to Kant, while Hume was right to claim that we cannot strictly know any of these things, our moral experience entitles us to believe in them.
Religious skepticism Religious skepticism generally refers to doubting given religious beliefs or claims. Historically, religious skepticism can be traced back to Socrateswho doubted many religious claims of the time. Modern religious skepticism typically emphasizes scientific and historical methods or evidence, with Michael Shermer writing that skepticism is a process for discovering the truth rather than general non-acceptance[ clarification needed ].
For example, a religious skeptic might believe that Jesus existed while questioning claims that he was the messiah or performed miracles see historicity of Jesus.
Religious skepticism is not the same as atheism or agnosticismthough these often do involve skeptical attitudes toward religion and philosophical theology for example, towards divine omnipotence.
Religious people are generally skeptical about claims of other religions, at least when the two denominations conflict concerning some stated belief. Additionally, they may also be skeptical of the claims made by atheists.
Scientific skepticism may discard beliefs pertaining to purported phenomena not subject to reliable observation and thus not systematic or testable empirically. Most scientists, being scientific skeptics, test the reliability of certain kinds of claims by subjecting them to a systematic investigation using some type of the scientific method.
Professional skepticism[ edit ] Professional skepticism is an important concept in auditing. It requires an auditor to have a "questioning mind," to make a critical assessment of evidence, and to consider the sufficiency of the evidence.The dictionary by Merriam-Webster is America's most trusted online dictionary for English word definitions, meanings, and pronunciation.
#wordsmatter. The dictionary by Merriam-Webster is America's most trusted online dictionary for English word definitions, meanings, and pronunciation. #wordsmatter. Analysis definition is - a detailed examination of anything complex in order to understand its nature or to determine its essential features: a thorough study.
How to use analysis in a sentence. a detailed examination of anything complex in order to understand its nature or to determine its essential features: a thorough study.
Definition: Identifying your competitors and evaluating their strategies to determine their strengths and weaknesses relative to those of your own product or service A competitive analysis is a.
Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. Information security (shortened as InfoSec) is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and r-bridal.coms is the process of inspecting.
ethical relativism In ethics, the belief that nothing is objectively right or wrong and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a particular individual, culture, or historical period.