Every teacher has heard it mentioned countless times at staff meetings and PD, being reminded of its revered status as one of the pinnacles of higher order thinking. It is associated with all subject areas and its practice is widespread in schools.
What do we know about differences in how girls and boys learn? There are significant differences in the ways girls and boys learn, differences which are more substantial than age differences in many ways. In other words, a 7-year-old girl and a 7-year-old boy differ, on average, on parameters such as "How long can you sit still, be quiet, and pay attention?
Most American schools segregate kids on the basis of age differences: And yet, on some parameters - such as how long a child can sit still, be quiet, and pay attention - the sex differences e.
If you visit an all-girls kindergarten and then an all-boys kindergarten, you will be struck by how differently the children learn. If you visit an all-girls 12th-grade classroom and an all-boys 12th-grade classroom, the differences are more subtle. Some 6-year-old boys just have to stand and make buzzing noises in order to learn.
It's unusual to find year-old boys who absolutely have to stand and make buzzing noises in order to concentrate. There are gender-specific personality traits which affect how children learn. In the 's and 's and even into the 's, it was fashionable to assume that gender differences in personality were "socially constructed.
However, cross-cultural studies over the past 30 years have provided little support for this hypothesis. Educational psychologists have consistently found that girls tend to have higher standards in the classroom, and evaluate their own performance more critically.
Girls also outperform boys in school as measured by students' gradesin all subjects and in all age groups. Alan Feingold, "Gender differences in personality: See also the important paper by Diane Ruble and her associates, "The role of gender-related processes in the development of sex differences in self-evaluation and depression, Journal of Affective Disorders, volume 29, pages Because girls do better in school as measured by report card gradesone might imagine that girls would be more self-confident about their academic abilities and have higher academic self-esteem.
But that's not the case. Paradoxically, girls are more likely to be excessively critical in evaluating their own academic performance.
Conversely, boys tend to have unrealistically high estimates of their own academic abilities and accomplishments. We arrive at one of the most robust paradoxes teachers face: Consequently, the most basic difference in teaching style for girls vs.
Educational psychologists have found fundamental differences in the factors motivating girls vs.
Most boys, on the other hand, will be less motivated to study unless the material itself interests them. Higgins, "Development of self-regulatory and self-evaluative processes: Sroufe editorsSelf processes and development, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press,pp.
See also the more recent paper by Eva Pomerantz and Jill Saxon, "Conceptions of ability as stable and self-evaluative processes: Girls and boys experience academic difficulties very differently.
Boys, in contrast, appear to see their failures as relevant only to the specific subject area in which they have failed; this may be due to their relative lack of concern with pleasing adults.
In addition, because girls view evaluative feedback as diagnostic of their abilities, failure may lead them to incorporate this information into their more general view of themselves. Boys, in contrast, may be relatively protected from such generalization because they see such feedback as limited in its diagnosticity.
Given a little encouragement, they will welcome the teacher's help. A girl-friendly classroom is a safe, comfortable, welcoming place.
People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once learned, it can be applied in any situation. Research from cognitive science indicates that thinking is not that sort of skill. What are the Dimensions of Learning? Dimensions of Learning (Marzano & Pickering, ) is an instructional framework based on five types of thinking, called the dimensions of learning, that are considered essential to student learning and academic performance. Positive attitudes and perceptions about learning. Acquiring and integrating knowledge. to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once you learn it, you can apply it in any situation.
Forget hard plastic chairs: Let the girls address their teacher by her or his first name. Context enhances learning for most girls, but often just bores the boys.In the West, critical thinking descends from the Socratic method and is a central tenant of the tutor system at the earliest institutions of higher learning (Oxford and Cambridge, for example).
This historic dedication of the top institutions to teaching critical thinking suggests that the method is effective. Of course, critical thinking is an essential part of a student’s mental equipment.
However, it cannot be detached from context. Teaching students generic ‘thinking skills’ separate from the rest of their curriculum is meaningless and ineffective.
People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once learned, it can be applied in any situation. Research from cognitive science indicates that thinking is not that sort of skill.
People who have sought to teach critical thinking have assumed that it is a skill, like riding a bicycle, and that, like other skills, once you learn it, you can apply it in any situation. Research from cognitive science shows that thinking is not that sort of skill. Why Don't Students Like School?: A Cognitive Scientist Answers Questions About How the Mind Works and What It Means for the Classroom [Daniel T.
Willingham] on r-bridal.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Easy-to-apply, scientifically-based approaches for engagingstudents in the classroom Cognitive scientist Dan Willingham focuses his acclaimedresearch on the biological and cognitive.
Dave Miller is the senior pastor of Southern Hills Baptist Church in Sioux City, Iowa, and editor of SBC Voices. He served as President of the SBC Pastors’ r-bridal.com is a graduate of Palm Beach Atlantic and SWBTS.
He has pastored churches in Florida, Virginia, and Iowa.