Their accomplishments of surviving the trek and delivering the data to the U. What makes Lewis and Clark truly significant historical figures, or not?
To see labels, point to the image. Boss Figures 2 and 4, which appear in Clark's Field Notes about 21 Januaryillustrate his plans for improving the barge. The boat had a mainmast with a square sail, plus a spritsail see the discussion of the white pirogue when it left Pittsburgh, but broke twice under strong winds before reaching Wood River, and the sprit broke on the Ohio River in early September.
The men were still working on Clark's hinged replacement at Camp Dubois in mid-April of Rising from the stern in Clark's drawing is an ensign-staff which bears a naval pennant showing the national origin of the boat and its crew.
The ensign-staff and flag are absent from Richard Boss's model—shown at the top of this page—only because they had accidentally been broken off and mislaid prior to the time the photograph Clark essay lewis taken.
Tholes and oars Move to top The tholes, as Clark noted in his sketch, are "pins to row by. Also, they allow the oars to be left to lie over the side in the event of "action," or emergency, such as the need for the two men at the bow and stern oars to quickly seize the halyards to handle the sail.
Clark added the rectangular blocks of wood in which the thole-pins were mounted in order to raise the fulcrum several inches, allowing the oars to be raised enough to avoid high waves and large obstacles such as sawyers.
Rowlocks were made with either one or two pins; Clark used one, which was the more common practice at Clark essay lewis time.
At the points where the oars are to rest in the oarlocks, the oars are attached to the thole-pins with grommets, which are made by wrapping a single strand of hemp rope around the loom, or inboard length, of the oar, twisting the bight into a loop and slipping it over the thole-pin, then wrapping it around the loom again and tying off the ends.
The sail is loose-footed—that is, without a spar or "boom" to keep the bottom of it securely spread. The two rows of ropes faintly visible across the lower part of the sail are "reef points" by which the sail can be gathered up and tied in order to reduce the sail's area in a strong wind.
On September 30,for example, Clark reported a hard wind which turned the boat and made it rock, which frightened the Sioux chief they had taken aboard. Boss Setting poles Move to top six foot-long setting poles are slung on each side, aft.
Each has an iron tip on its lower end, for a secure purchase among the mud, sand and rocks of the river. Setting poles were especially useful for fending off drifting logs and snags, and avoiding rocks, shoals and sandbars.
It was probably used to moor the boat to a tree any time they "came to"—stopped to rest or encamp. Cordelling with that line would have been impractical because it would usually draw the bow toward shore.
Instead, the line was attached to a pivot point on the mast-head, and led forward, according to Boss, "through the eye of a 10 to foot adjustable pendant which was secured at the bow.
By adjusting the length of the pendant, the tow line's effective fore and aft point of attachment relative to the vessel's center of lateral resistance could be controlled.
Storage lockers Move to top The notes accompanying the sketch in Figure 4 pertain to the storage lockers Clark devised, including hinged lids that could be raised for defensive protection.
The planking required was sawed and trimmed by a detail of soldiers under Sergeant Pryor in mid-February of at Camp Dubois. Evidently he had no reason to include it, but it has elicited numerous conjectures for many years.
Should it be flatter or rounder? Four times between May 24 and July 26,the barge nearly rolled over—surely a terrifying prospect at the time.
Captain's cabin Move to top The captains' cabin sometimes called the "cuddy cabin," although never by Lewis or Clarksituated on the after deck, contained two bunk-beds, a bench, a desk to hold a portable writing-desk with inkwell, shelves for the captains' library, and instruments such as the Hadley's quadrant or octant and sextantClark's two-pole chainand the log line, reel and ship.
The six cabin windows shown in Clark's sketch Figure 2three on each side, could be closed with sliding shutters on the inside. The three on the near side in the photo are obscured by the bundle of setting-poles. On June 21,the day that the men had to warp See Rowing, poling, towing below the barge up some exceptionally rapid water, Clark reported that they accidentally broke one of the starboard windows and lost some spare oars that were slung under the windows.
The cabin was topped by a quarterdeck shaded by an awning. This was the post of the helmsman, who was in control of the tiller, which was attached to the rudder.
The rudder Clark showed in his sketch was rather small for a vessel of this size and design, if he drew it to scale—and Clark is believed to have been meticulous about such details.Working from William Clark's detailed plan and profile drawings and accompanying notes as well as references scattered throughout the journals, and with a thoughtful review of scant contemporary documentations and recent historical interpretations, nautical historian Richard Boss created models of the so-called "keelboat" and the "red" and "white" pirogues, as well as samples of two of their.
On November 15, , Lewis and Clark and the Corps of Volunteers for Northwestern Discovery reach the Pacific Ocean at the mouth of the Columbia River, one year, six months, and one day after leaving St. Louis, Missouri, in search of the legendary "Northwest Passage" to the sea. Explore. Lewis & Clark is a private college with a public conscience and global reach.
Here you’ll work with some of the world’s most fascinating people and learn more about yourself in the process. News. Episode 6 of Trinity Foundation Radio has been uploaded to the web site. Join host Steve Matthews as he interviews Tom Juodaits, President of The Trinity Foundation, concerning the 40th anniversary of the publication of "The Trinity Manifesto."Winners of Christian Worldview Essay .
William Ramsey Clark (born December 18, ) is an American lawyer, activist and former federal government official. A progressive, New Frontier liberal, he occupied senior positions in the United States Department of Justice under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, notably serving as United States Attorney General from to ; previously he was Deputy Attorney General.
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