Underground entrance to the New York City Subway system Physical security access control with a hand geometry scanner Example of fob based access control using an ACT reader Geographical access control may be enforced by personnel e. There may be fences to avoid circumventing this access control. An alternative of access control in the strict sense physically controlling access itself is a system of checking authorized presence, see e.
A role is a named collection of privileges permissions that can be associated to a user. The use of roles is a generic concept that is used by a wide range of technologies, not just databases, to simplify the security administration effort.
A security context is the collection of roles that a user is associated with. The security context is often defined as part of the authentication process. Depending on the technology used a security context is maintained by the system, this is very common in GUI applications, or must be passed around by the system, something that is common with browser-based n-tier system.
A combination of the two strategies is also common. Authorization can be enforced within your database by a variety of means which can be combined. A permission is a privilege, or authorization right, that a user or role has regarding an element such as a column, table, or even the database itself.
A permission defines the type of access that that is permitted, such as the ability to update a table or to run a stored procedure.
When a user attempts to interact with a database his or her permissions are checked, and if the user is not authorized to perform part of the interaction, which could be a transaction, the interaction fails and an error is returned.
You can control, often to a very fine level, the data that a user can access via the use of views. This is a two-step process. First, you define views that restrict the tables, columns, and rows within the tables that a role can access.
Second, you define permissions on those views. Code within the stored procedure can be written to programmatically check security access rules.
A new option being offered by some database vendors is proprietary security tools. One example is Oracle Label Securityan add-on that enables you to define and enforce row-level permissions. Many organizations choose to disallow ad-hoc queries to production databases to help minimize the chance of unauthorized access as well as to avoid the associated performance problems.
Many organizations introduce reporting databases such as data marts to support ad-hoc queries. Instead you must set a strategy, perhaps a combination of the ones listed below, and then follow that strategy. The implication is that you need to verify, through testing and inspections, that your organizational security strategy is being followed.
Yoder and Barcalow have developed a pattern language for enabling application security. This is the place to validate users and to make appropriate decisions when dealing with security breaches. Full View With Errors.
Users are presented with all functionality, but when they attempt to use functionality that they are not authorized to use, an appropriate error-handling procedure is followed.
The advantage is that this approach is easy to implement, but it puts you at risk because it reveals functionality to people that they may then decide to try and gain unauthorized access to.
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