Early life[ edit ] Born in Paris, Armand du Plessis was the fourth of five children and the last of three sons: His family was somewhat prominent, belonging to the lesser nobility of Poitou:
Mazarin, Jules Giulio Mazarini; — Europe, to Born near Pascina outside Rome on 14 JulyMazarin was the eldest son of six children. He received an early Jesuit education in Rome and then pursued further studies in Spain. With the patronage and support of the Colonna family, who had ties to the court of Pope Urban VIII reigned —he initially entered into the papal army inbut by the late s instead took the initial vows of a cleric and became a papal diplomat.
Inwhile serving as an envoy for the papal court in the negotiations that sought an end to the war between Spain and France over the disputed succession of the crown of MantuaMazarin traveled to France to meet with Cardinal Richelieu, King Louis XIII 's first minister.
Mazarin's deft negotiating skills endeared him to the powerful French royal minister and helped to secure temporary peace between Spain and France.
Thanks to his success in the Mantua affair, the pope sent Mazarin to Paris in as his ambassador nuncio to the French court with the goal of realizing a lasting peace settlement between Spain and France. While in Paris, Richelieu and Mazarin began a mutually beneficial political relationship.
Inhowever, Richelieu adopted a policy of continued war with Spain in the context of the Thirty Years' War; Mazarin had failed in his mission to bring peace, and the pope recalled him. Once back at the papal court, Mazarin maintained his political ties to France and actively represented French interests there.
Inin gratitude for his work on behalf of France in Rome, Louis XIII pressed the pope to promote Mazarin to cardinal; he received the cardinal's hat 16 December Mazarin left Rome, never to return, and arrived in Paris in January In the service of the French crown, Mazarin's diplomatic goals remained the same: His initial years in France, however, proved to be ones of domestic political instability and crisis with the death of Richelieu in December closely followed by that of Louis XIII in May The succession of the five-year-old Louis XIV to the throne in ushered in a regency government with the acting regent, the Spanish Queen Anne of Austriaholding the political authority of the king in trusteeship until he reached the age of majority when he could assume the full powers of the crown.
Although contemporaries and scholars alike have speculated that an even more intimate bond developed between the first minister and queen, there is no conclusive evidence as to the exact nature of their relationship.
With Mazarin and Anne of Austia at the helm of the government, a complex series of domestic revolts, collectively called the Fronde, developed in France, beginning in and lasting until The revolts began with the judges of the parlement or law court in Paris, spread to gain backing among some key nobles and princes, and then found popular support in Paris as well as the provinces.
Although the causes of the revolts were rooted in varied and complex issues involving royal authority, including the levying of new taxes, the perceived abuse of royal authority in dealings with the parlement, and the crown's reliance on royal commissioned officers intendants in the outlying provinces, the revolts of the Fronde did specifically target Mazarin and Anne of Austriaseeking to remove these "foreigners" from power.
During the crisis, pamphlets called "Mazarinades" circulated throughout France. These often-satirical pamphlets fueled the revolts as they contained scathing criticisms of Mazarin, Anne of Austriaand the regency government.
Mazarin remained in exile from France during much of the Fronde, but continued to work with Anne of Austria and other noble factions loyal to their cause to bring an end to the revolts in The coronation of sixteen-year-old Louis XIV at Rheims Cathedral in June and Mazarin's return to Paris marked the end of the crisis and the full restoration of the first minister.
Even in the midst of the Fronde, Mazarin continued to direct France's foreign policy. He played an important part in the negotiations for the Peace of Westphalia at the end of the Thirty Years' War in Despite this treaty, which brought peace to much of warring Europethe war between France and Spain continued.
Mazarin pursued a policy of allying with German princes and England against the Habsburgs in an effort to force peace with Spain.
Under the terms of the Peace of the Pyrenees inMazarin finally secured his long-term goal of peace between France and Spain. As both a father figure and political mentor, Mazarin prepared Louis XIV to govern France by tutoring him in the craft of kingship and by providing the king with loyal advisors and able ministers, such as Michel Le Tellier and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, who would serve the crown after Mazarin's death.
Mazarin died 9 March in the palace of Vincennes on the outskirts of Paris, leaving a legacy of a stronger, more stable France in domestic and international politics.
Upon the death of his beloved first minister, godfather, and tutor, Louis XIV announced that he would name no other first minister, marking the clear advent of his personal rule as king.Jules Mazarin was born Giulio Mazarin on July 14, , at Pescina, a village in the Abruzzi, Italy.
He began his career as a soldier and diplomat in the service of the Pope. In this capacity he met Cardinal Richelieu in .
Cardinal Richelieu had one simple foreign policy aim – to fight for France’s interests by whatever measures were needed. As a loyal servant to Louis XIII, Richelieu wanted France to be the dominant power in Europe and give Louis the status Richelieu felt he deserved.
Cardinal Richelieu Armand-Jean du Plessis was the son of François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu. François had been a close friend and advisor of Henry III but had died young. Cardinal Richelieu was born as Armand du Plessis on September 9, in the family of François du Plessis, seigneur de Richelieu and Suzanne de la Porte.
He was fragile and frequently fell sick since his childhood throughout his r-bridal.com Of Birth: Paris. Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu: Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII of France from to His major goals were the establishment of royal absolutism in France and the end of Spanish-Habsburg hegemony in Europe.
Cardinal Armand Jean du Plessis, 1st Duke of Richelieu and Fronsac (French pronunciation: [aʁmɑ̃ ʒɑ̃ dy plɛsi]; 9 September – 4 December ), commonly referred to as Cardinal Richelieu (French: Cardinal de Richelieu [kaʁdinal d(ə) ʁiʃ(ə)ljø]), was a French clergyman, nobleman, and r-bridal.comality: French.