Terms[ edit ] There are a number of other possible terms which are also used in order to refer to negative feelings and attitudes towards Islam and Muslims, such as anti-Muslimism, intolerance against Muslims, anti-Muslim prejudice, anti-Muslim bigotry, hatred of Muslims, anti-Islamism, Muslimophobia, demonisation of Islam, or demonisation of Muslims. In German, Islamophobie fear and Islamfeindlichkeit hostility are used. The Scandinavian term Muslimhat literally means "hatred of Muslims". It is directed at a perceived or real Muslim threat through the maintenance and extension of existing disparities in economic, political, social and cultural relations, while rationalizing the necessity to deploy violence as a tool to achieve 'civilizational rehab' of the target communities Muslim or otherwise.
How much cheaper is a refillable in Euros? Together, the refilling requirement and the packaging tax have effectively promoted the use of refillable bottles in Denmark's beverage market. Because of the refilling requirement, Danes consumed percent of their packaged beer and at least 90 percent of their soft drinks and mineral water in refillable bottles in [CBMC][KNUD].
For beverages not subject to the refilling requirement, the tax has effectively promoted refilling. Because of the price advantage that the tax gives to refillables, most retailers in Denmark sell wine and other alcoholic beverages only in refillable bottles.
ALDI and other retailers sell soft drinks and alcoholic beverages in Denmark in refillable bottles and have experienced very few difficulties with costs and logistics [AGC, pp. On store shelves in Denmark, moreover, consumers see a variety of beverage packaging.
Soft-drink companies--who like to use packaging to distinguish their products from competitors' products--have been allowed to use their own bottles or to choose their packaging from the five standard PET bottles and one standard glass bottle [BWID][AGC, p.
Denmark's beverage container laws have greatly benefitted the public.
The refilling requirement for soft drinks and beer has preventedtons of waste annually. The use of refillable wine bottles, which is encouraged by the tax, has prevented 60, tons of waste annually [FT].
While helping Denmark reduce waste management costs, the packaging tax raised million Euros in and million Euros in [DB]. The Danish Tax and Customs Administration spentEuros and many man-hours of labor to establish the information systems required to administer and collect the tax.
Operating costs for the tax collection system were 27, Euros in The complexity of the packaging tax scheme makes collection seem difficult in comparison to other taxes [ERC, p. On the other hand, the administration and enforcement of the refilling requirement for soft drinks and beer has been easy, and compliance has been easy for the beverage industry [AGC, p.
The EC also argued that the ban is a trade barrier under Article 28 of the EEC Treaty and attempted to debunk Denmark's use of life-cycle analysis studies to defend its beverage container policies [CB]. In its defense, Denmark cited a ruling by the EU court that found the ban is not a barrier to trade as long as the EU does not require a beverage container reuse policy for all member states.
The EU, in fact, has not required such a policy through its packaging directive or through any of its other directives [AGM, p. In the debate leading to the trial, furthermore, Denmark has argued that ".
The slow decline of refilling in Germany and the anticipated softening of that country's beverage container laws will also put more cans closer to Denmark's borders.
However, Denmark could make refillable beverage containers exempt from its packaging tax and maintain the success that it has had with promoting refilling.
According to the February Danish Environment Newsletter, "the Minister of the Environment has repealed the prohibition on disposable packaging that has kept beer and soft drink cans off the Danish market.
Denmark has called on the EU Commission to drop the pending lawsuit, which is now unnecessary. A common, obligatory deposit and return system will ensure that the used cans are collected. By summerbreweries and retailers are slated to install new recycling machines for cans and other one-way packaging [DEN].
The deposit is expected to be DKr 1. Although this policy instrument allows one-way containers, consumers and the domestic beverage industry overwhelmingly prefer refillable bottles. Refilling is almost a necessity in Finland, in fact, because recycling is an expensive and impractical option for managing used beverage containers.
You can change your cookie settings at any time but parts of our site will not function correctly without them. In War, Wine, and Taxes, John Nye debunks the myth that Britain was a free-trade nation during and after the industrial revolution, by revealing how the British used tariffs--notably on French wine--as a mercantilist tool to politically weaken France and to respond to pressure from local brewers and others.
In some cases, where the local Western Union agent is a Hezbollah member or supporter, experts believe Hezbollah gets a cut of the 7% service fee charge split between Western . The paralysis of the Western European democracies before their deadliest threat is frightening.
International Jewry is doing all it can to encourage such paralysis. During our struggle for power in Germany, Jewish newspapers tried to conceal the danger, until National Socialism awakened the people.
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