Focusing on Your Audience The following documents offer some suggestions for drafting a predictive legal analysis. The suggested format for a law office memorandum, structure for a working draft, a sample memorandum, and an advanced sample memorandum exemplify a conventional structure, highlighting a specific legal question and its answer, followed by a recitation of legally significant facts - the facts upon which resolution of the legal question depends - and a discussion section that identifies the applicable legal rule, applies it to the facts of the case, and addresses likely counterarguments to the principal line of analysis.
April 26, QUESTION PRESENTED 1 Under New York law, 2 did 3 Loman's Fashions' description of a designer leather coat in an advertising circular constitute an offer 4 to sell the coat which became a binding contract when the text of the advertisement indicated that the coats were a "manufacturer's closeout" and that the early shopper would be rewarded, and when a shopper signified her intent to purchase the coat according to the advertised terms?
The ad announced that the store would open at 7 a. The store manager declined, and the shopper filed a complaint in Small Claims Court, 9 alleging that Loman's had breached a contract by failing to sell the advertised leather coats at the advertised price.
In this case, the manufacturer had discontinued the line of coats and Loman's was not prepared to sell other, designer leather coats at such a drastic markdown. Loman expressed concern 11 that, if the shopper's interpretation were to hold, Loman's would have to reconsider its marketing strategies; she had assumed that the advertised terms applied while supplies lasted.
She asks whether Loman's would have any contractual obligation under these circumstances. Loman's contends that the advertisement was intended to apply while supplies of the item lasted, and that is it not obligated to sell the shopper a comparably valued coat at the advertised price.
The issue in this case is whether a retailer's advertisement will be considered to be an offer that may be turned into a binding contract by a shopper who signifies an intention to purchase the items described in the advertisement.
A court would likely conclude that the shopper did not state a cause of action for breach of contract because the advertisement did not constitute an offer which, upon acceptance, could be turned into a contract but rather and invitation to negotiate.
The only general test is the inquiry whether the facts show that some performance was promised in positive terms in return for something requested. However, a purchaser may not make a valid contract by mere acceptance of a "proposition. Nor does the purchaser have the right to select an item which the seller does not have in stock or is not willing to sell at a reduced price.
In Schenectady Stove Co. Under these circumstances, the Court of Appeals held that no contract was ever made between the parties with respect to an order that defendant submitted because the plaintiff had not made an offer that was complete and definite in all material terms. Hence, it was not possible for the defendant to make a valid contract by mere acceptance of a "proposition.
Similarly, in Lovett, a department store advertised that it would sell, deliver, and install certain "wellknown standard makes of radio receivers at 25 per cent. The plaintiff had demanded a particular model of radio that was not listed in the ad, and the defendant had declined to sell it at the reduced price.
The court held that an advertisement by a department store was not an offer but an invitation to all persons that the advertiser was ready to receive offers for the goods upon the stated terms, reasoning that such a general advertisement was distinguishable from an offer of a reward or other payment in return for some requested performance.
The court further held that, even assuming the plaintiff's "acceptance" turned the offer into a contract, the purchaser did not have the right to select the item which the defendant did not have in stock or was not willing to sell at a reduced price.
By its terms, the advertisement announced that it had a stock of coats to sell, and described the coats as a manufacturer's closeout selling at a substantially reduced price. As the court noted in Lovett, 19 a prospective purchaser does not have the right to select items that the retailer does not have in stock or is not willing to sell at a reduced price.
However, the ad indicated that the store, opening for business on the day of the sale at 7 a. By announcing that "the early bird catches the savings," the ad could fairly be read to mean that the supplies were not unlimited. The question should be sufficiently narrow and should be objective.
Here, since the question presented is designed to highlight whether the facts indicate that a formal contract offer has been made, you would not use the term "offer" in framing the question, i.
Rather, reserve your legal conclusions here, whether or not the advertisement constituted a formal offer for the short answer section. Although the "question presented" section is short, it must i provide a concise reference to the legal claim and relevant doctrine and ii incorporate the most legally significant facts of your case.
A complete and well-balanced question presented is incisive — it immediately gets to the heart of the legal question — and it orients the reader to the factual context. You may not be sure which facts are most legally significant when you first start writing the memo.Our experienced team of legal research and writing attorneys can provide appellate brief writing services for Federal Courts of Appeal, State Courts of Appeal, and the United States Supreme Court.
Through The Lex Group, we can also offer appellate brief . MEMORANDUM OF ADVICE ON EVIDENCE R v Napier and Jones Counsel has been briefed to advise the Director of Public Prosecutions in the prosecution of William NAPIER and Henry JONES, who have each been charged with two counts of aggravated burglary, the first incident occurring on 10 February and the second incident occurring on 18 February 4) The author of this memo has been careful not to use language that assumes the answer to the legal question it raises.
Legal Memorandum Format Sample On the following pages is a legal memorandum formatted the way your memos in this class should be formatted.
The substance of this memo comes from Appendix A of the Wellford text. The formatting follows the “Visual Rhetoric” instructions on pages of . Webb Henderson Legal and Regulatory Advisors Commercially Confidential and Legally Privileged 1 Memorandum of advice To Jeremy Cain, Transpower From Mark Toner, Partner Date 14 August Subject Settlement and Prudential Security Review: clearing manager’s proposed power to require disconnection.
30 Fall Perspectives: Teaching Legal Research and Writing Vol. 8 PERSPECTIVES STRUCTURE YOUR LEGAL MEMORANDUM BY MARK GANNAGE1 Mark Gannage is a lawyer at Goodman Phillips &.